Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), also known as Polycystic Ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common condition affecting 5% to 10% of women in the age group 12–45 years. It is a problem in which a woman’s hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with menstrual periods and make it difficult to conceive. The main features include no ovulation, irregular periods, acne and hirsuteness. If not treated it can cause insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol leading to heart disease. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is related to an imbalance in hormones. In PCOS, they begin to produce little more androgen s.
This causes patients to stop ovulating, get pimples and grow more facial and body hair. Follicles are sacs within the ovaries that contain eggs. Normally, one or more eggs are released during each menstrual cycle. This is called ovulation. In polycystic ovary syndrome, the eggs in these follicles do not mature and are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they can form very small cysts in the ovary. Hence the name polycystic ovaries.PCOS seems to be hereditary, so the possibility of having it is greater if other women in the family have PCOS, irregular periods or diabetes.